Prise en compte de l'histoire tectonique des structures géologiques dans la création de modèles numériques 3D compatibles

Gautier Laurent. ( 2013 )
Université de Lorraine

Abstract

The main approaches to the modelling of geological structures are mainly geometrical, static and deterministic. In other terms, their geometry and connections are determined by applying criteria based on the compa- tibility with available data in their current state. The evolution of the geological structures is only integrated indirectly by the modeller and the kinematical and mechanical compatibility of the produced models remain dicult to assess. This thesis explores di erent methods which aim at better including the evolution of geological structures in the modelling process. Three complementary approaches are developed. First, a kinematical fault operator based on a 3D curvilinear fault frame is presented. It aims at progressively deforming the structures surrounding faults. The second approach is based on a pseudo-mechanical deformation tool inspired form computer graphics, based on rigid elements. It is used to interactively editing the structures and approximately simulate their deformation history. The last proposal is to compute the paleo-geographical coordinates from the restoration of geological structures. This way, the heterogeneities are characterised based on paleo-geographic distances which are compatible with the structural, kinematical and mechanical hypotheses speci ed when building the geological model. These di erent contributions open numerous perspectives to better take into account the evolution of the geolo- gical structures when modelling the subsurface and its heterogeneities. They help us to increase the compatibility of geomodels and simplify the parameterization of geological deformation to facilitate the characterisation of geological structures by inverse approaches.

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BibTeX Reference

@PHDTHESIS{,
    author = { Laurent, Gautier },
     title = { Prise en compte de l'histoire tectonique des structures géologiques dans la création de modèles numériques 3D compatibles },
     month = { "apr" },
      year = { 2013 },
    school = { Université de Lorraine },
  abstract = { The main approaches to the modelling of geological structures are mainly geometrical, static and
deterministic. In other terms, their geometry and connections are determined by applying criteria based on the compa-
tibility with available data in their current state. The evolution of the geological structures is only integrated indirectly
by the modeller and the kinematical and mechanical compatibility of the produced models remain dicult to assess.
This thesis explores dierent methods which aim at better including the evolution of geological structures in the
modelling process. Three complementary approaches are developed. First, a kinematical fault operator based on a
3D curvilinear fault frame is presented. It aims at progressively deforming the structures surrounding faults. The
second approach is based on a pseudo-mechanical deformation tool inspired form computer graphics, based on rigid
elements. It is used to interactively editing the structures and approximately simulate their deformation history. The
last proposal is to compute the paleo-geographical coordinates from the restoration of geological structures. This way,
the heterogeneities are characterised based on paleo-geographic distances which are compatible with the structural,
kinematical and mechanical hypotheses specied when building the geological model.
These dierent contributions open numerous perspectives to better take into account the evolution of the geolo-
gical structures when modelling the subsurface and its heterogeneities. They help us to increase the compatibility of
geomodels and simplify the parameterization of geological deformation to facilitate the characterisation of geological
structures by inverse approaches. }
}